what is step definition file in cucumber

When you're editing a feature file, RubyMine detects and highlights the steps where definitions are missing. Step definition is the implementation of test steps in feature. Step 3) Select the Project location and click "Create." When Cucumber executes a Gherkin step in a scenario, it will look for a matching step definition to execute. Each step definition must be tied to each scenario defined in… Note: Step definition is nothing but the steps you want to perform under this cucumber method. So it makes sense to have a separate step definition class for every page as well. and created separate step definition files for feature specific steps. When I press Alt+Enter, I see Inspection 'Undefined Step' options.However, I should see the intention action Create Step Definition.. I would just divide the steps file as I did the separations between the Page Objects. I thought I had the Cucumber IntelliJ plugin installed, so that shouldn't be a problem. Edit this page. When Cucumber executes a Step in a Scenario it look for a matching Step Definition to execute. This is either the default case or the location specified with the relevant relevant relevant-r option. 3) As of now, the test will show many errors on ‘@‘ annotations.

We are using nightwatch-cucumber to run selenium tests and our only solution for now is to add a prefix to each step:. Step Definition: files in the chosen programming language where Cucumber will be able to associate what actions to execute associated with each step of each acceptance criterion defined in the different features. Keeping definitions in the default package might result in an error as IntelliJ IDEA will not be able to locate them. Grouping step definitions. Note: Step definition is nothing but the steps you want to perform under this cucumber method. steps it will match. Scenarios contain Given-When-Then steps that describe behavior in a human-readable and machine-parsable way. Each step of the feature file is mapped to a corresponding method on the step definition file. Be aware that, regardless of the directory structure employed, Cucumber effectively flattens the features/ directory tree when running tests.This means that anything ending in.java.kt.js.rbinside the directory in which Cucumber is run is treated as a step definition. ToolsQA Selenium Online Training | Selenium Certification | Selenium Course. On executing the 'Runner.java' script, it … Step 1) Open RubyMine Editor via windows start menu . expression. For every different page, we have a separate PageObject class. You can use this as a starting point for new step definitions. So, now when Cucumber executes a step of the scenario mentioned in the feature file, it scans the step definition file and figures out which function is to be called. But as per the screenshots, I can see that feature and step definition is … Configuring syntax highlighting. It's almost as if Cucumber is not loading the step definition files. Cucumber proposes to write scenario in the Given/When/Then format. snippet: Suggested snippets will use your own parameter types Right Click on TestRunner class and Click Run As  > JUnit Test. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. In the example given in step definitions, Cucumber extracts the text 48 from the step, converts it to an int and passes it as an argument to the method function block function function. A Step Definition is a Java method Kotlin function Scala function JavaScript function Ruby block with an expression that links it to one or more Gherkin steps. parameter type exists, Cucumber would use that in the suggested expression: Make sure you use the summary plugin when running Cucumber in order Others: Then, depending on what level we do the tests, other files may be needed. Each feature file describes a single area of functionality or requirement, such as a customer editing their profile, and contains multiple scenarios within the same file that illustrate the functionality or requirement. matching step definition, it will print a All Rights Reserved. The user can execute this script from Test runner script, i.e. Cucumber finds the Step Definition file with the help of the Glue code in Cucumber Options. What is Step Definition? Above is the cucumber feature file which performs the addition of two numbers and printing their result in the console. Given the statement of Scenario, it looks for the same statement in the Step Definition file, the moment it finds the statement, it executes the piece of code written inside the function. 1) Create a new Class file in the ‘stepDefinition‘ package and name it as ‘Test_Steps‘, by right click on the Package and select New > Class. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. but IntelliJ IDEA, not highlight steps in feature file and also I cant use ALT+ENTER key to create step definition I added the cucumber-java dependencies and also installed the Gherkin and cucumber plugins, but still feature files aren't recognized as they should be. OK. Now accordingly we need to also change your step definition file requests so go through a step definition file. © 2019 SmartBear Software. In your unit test class you say: glue = {"com.macro.definition"} However the step definition classes are in com.test.definition. Cucumber Script 2: Verify output when Email id is entered or not entered; Cucumber Script 1: Multiply 2 Numbers. Test business-readable specs against your code on any When a Cucumber step definition needs a value passed to it, that value is assigned to a local variable defined between the pipes ‘|’ after the ‘do’. Let's discuss about BDD framework, how we can use Cucumber with TestNG and Selenium. In order to capture the state in each step, we can store them in Step Definition class instance variables. Now we can take a look at how we can implement them into our Cucumber feature files and step definitions. Tutorial. Do not check the option for ‘public static void main‘ and click on Finish button. We will cover different Cucumber Options in the next chapter. In this chapter, we will learn about Execution Order of Hooks.If you ever have worked with TestNG, you must know that it performs the execution in a certain order.The same way Cucumber also executes the hooks in a certain order. To illustrate how this works, look at the following Gherkin Scenario: The I have 48 cukes in my belly part of the step (the text following the Given keyword) will match the following step definition: A step definition’s expression can either be a Regular Expression So we’re taking a break from our usual direct Cucumber posts, and dedicating this post to the setup for next month’s post. But there are ways to change the order of the executing according to the need of the test or the framework. Cucumber Options tag is used to provide a link between the feature files and step definition files. the captured string will be transformed before it is passed to the It looks like Cucumber isn't finding your step defintion class. if they match parts of your undefined step. (3 replies) Hi, I'm a newbie learning all about Cucumber gem in Ruby. Step 8) Analyze the output. Stakeholders write down the feature file. with an expression that links it to one or more Gherkin steps. It will execute the functions written in the step definition file according to feature file … A Feature File is an entry point to the Cucumber tests. JavaScript function Given the statement of Scenario, it looks for the same statement in the Step Definition file, the moment it finds the statement, it executes the piece of code written inside the function. Cucumber finds the Step Definition … definition’s methodfunctionblockfunctionfunction. You can generate missing step definitions in the following way: Place the caret at the step without a definition, press Alt+Enter, and select Create step definition or Create all step definitions. argument will be an integer, because the built-in int parameter type’s Note: Please go through the chapter of First Cucumber Selenium Test to understand the above message. It's almost as if Cucumber is not loading the step definition files. Step Definitions are written inside a class file. 2) Take a look at the message in the console window. Have passed 12 years playing with automation in mammoth projects like O2 (UK), Sprint (US), TD Bank (CA), Canadian Tire (CA), NHS (UK) & ASOS(UK). Step Definitions are also known as Glue Code. Share data between steps in Cucumber using Scenario Context, Run Cucumber Test from Command Line / Terminal, "^Message displayed Logout Successfully$". In the same directory, Cucumber will search for a Feature corresponding to that step definition. Hey Zakir, Dry Run is an option provided by @CucumberOptions which are like property file or settings for your test.Cucumber dry run is basically used to compile cucumber feature files and step Definitions.If there is any compilation errors it will show when we use dry run. Cucumber-Eclipse > New Step-Definition File Wizard, Im doing integration testing with cucumber and Gradle in Eclipse. documentation in Jira.

Given the statement of Scenario , it looks for the same statement in the Step Definition file, the moment it finds the statement, it executes the piece of code written inside the function. I've installed it and have some test scenarios and step definition files setup however when I run cucumber on my scenarios, each one comes up as undefined even though the step definition files have ruby code in them. state in instance variables. Cucumber : How to create first Feature and Step Definition file : Tutorial 4 - YouTube Each step in the scenario may have some state which can be required by another step in the scenario. An annotation followed by the pattern is used to link the Step Definition to all the matching Steps, and the code is what Cucumber will execute when it sees a Gherkin Step. This message was displayed, when we ran the Test_Runner class. 2) Take out the code take out the Selenium Java code of the following steps from the ‘SeleniumTest‘ and paste it into the second method ‘@When(“^User Navigate to LogIn Page$”)‘. This means that we must be able to share state between steps. I'm trying to follow this article to match Cucumber specs with step definitions in IntelliJ.. For now my workflow is. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. I am passionate about designing Automation Frameworks that follows OOPS concepts and Design patterns. to have the snippets printed. Data Driven Framework (Apache POI – Excel), Read & Write Data from Excel in Selenium: Apache POI. Steps definition file stores the mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file with a code of function to be executed.So, now when Cucumber executes a step of the scenario mentioned in the feature file, it scans the step definition file and figures out which function is to be called.So with each function, whatever code you want to execute with each test step (i.e. A Feature file will contain one feature with one or more Scenarios. Please note that if you use arrow functions, you won’t be able to share state between steps! I’M LAKSHAY SHARMA AND I’M FULL STACK TEST AUTOMATION ENGINEER. Step definition is defined in ruby files under "features/step_definitions/*_steps.rb". In the last chapter of Cucumber Selenium Java test we decided on the LogIn scenario on Store.DemoQA.com.In this chapter we will write a test in Cucumber Format (Feature File).. What is Cucumber Feature File? The file, class or package name of a step definition does not affect what Gherkin Specify the JUnit runner class to run the series of test cases. Features: File with “.feature” extension are called features file. How to handle multiple windows in Selenium. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. WebDriverManager: How to manage browser drivers easily? This is another approach using data table parameters. Step Definitions: Each step… Cucumber will run the script the same way it runs in Selenium WebDriver and the result will be shown in the left hand side project explorer window in JUnit tab. Step definition maps the Test Case Steps in the feature files(introduced by Given/When/Then) to code. or a Cucumber Expression. Each step in feature file depends on data/state from previous steps. If a color Once we run the JUnit runner class − It will parse the Gherkin feature file. Write your functions and call them from step definition file. Java method Create a package for step definitions Right-click Test Sources Root in the Project tool window and select New | Package. What is Cucumber Feature File & Step Definition? These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Step 2) In Rubymine Editor, click on Create New Project . The examples in this section use Cucumber Expressions. Each step in the scenario will have a definition in Step Definition file. I live in Amsterdam(NL), with my wife and a lovely daughter. Scala function Ruby block As soon as Cucumber reaches the first step for e.g. modern dev stack, Empower your team to collaborate and harness the power of Create Feature file, Step definition & Test Runner classes to automate with Cucumber using TestNG and Selenium. Tags used on the Cucumber Gherkin file must be mapped to its step definition by using the tags @Given, @When and @Then. Follow TOOLSQA for latest updates on QA Events and Tutorials. With string parameters covered, let us now have a look at how you can pass numbers in cucumber feature files. A Step Definition is a small piece of code with a pattern attached to it or in other words a Step Definition is a java method in a class with an annotation above it. parameter types’s regexp, That is pretty much theoretical, don't worry about the definitions even if you are not clear with, once we write our first test case using Cucumber … The thing is that in cucumber if you place the feature file, step definition file and runner file in the same package then automatically, it will be able to map the steps from the step definition file with the feature file. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); © 2013-2020 TOOLSQA.COM | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. In the same directory, Cucumber will search for a Feature corresponding to that step definition.This is either the default case or the location specified with therelevantrelevantrelevant-roption. Below is the syntax of Cucumber Options tag: You can configure Cucumber-aware syntax highlighting in the following way: The user can execute this script from Test runner script, i.e. 1) Now take out the Selenium Java code of the following steps from the ‘SeleniumTest‘ and paste it into the first method ‘@Given(“^User is on Home Page$”)‘. If you prefer to use Regular Expressions, each capture group from the match will be passed as arguments to the step Cucumber BDD framework with TestNG & Selenium. Step 8) Analyze the output. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The Code. When Cucumber executes a Step in a Scenario it will look for a matching Step Definition to execute. A line started with Keyword “Feature” in Feature file is the test feature that cucumber going to execute. If the capture group expression is identical to one of the registered It which executes the steps on Application Under Test and checks the outcomes against expected results. To illustrate how this works, look at the following Gherkin Scenario: 10 Minute Creating a Step Definition File Each step of the feature file must be mapped to a corresponding step definition. First, create a new package then create a new Java class where you will keep the step definition’s implementation. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Right click on your package and create new class file with name you like. Try changing that line to: glue = {"com.test.definition"} You may have to rebuild your project to pick up the change. These cookies do not store any personal information. Please connect with me at LinkedIn or follow me on Instagram. Handle Ajax call Using JavaScriptExecutor in Selenium? 'Runner.java' as shown in below screenshot. In the selected step definition file that opens in the editor, enter the desired code. Regular Expressions A regular expression, or regex for short, is a pattern […] Create step definitions. So in the step definition file … In Cucumber, step definitions should be stored in a named package under Test Sources Root. For automation, my weapons are Selenium(Java & C#), Appium, REST-Sharp, REST-Assured, Cucumber, Specflow, etc. So far in the series of Cucumber tutorial we have covered Feature files, Gherkins, Step Definitions, Annotations, Test Runner Class and many other things. Step 7) Executing the Script. So the steps mentioned in the feature file and the step definition file (to be covered later) should match. (3 replies) Hi, I'm a newbie learning all about Cucumber gem in Ruby. In the example above, the cukes To jump from a step in a .feature file to the step definition, press and hold Ctrl, hover over the step, and click the step when it turns into a link. Page Object Model using Page Factory in Selenium WebDriver, Find Element and Find Elements in Selenium. Step 7) Executing the Script. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. step definition snippet with a matching Cucumber Expression. 4) Do the same steps for the rest of the methods as well and complete Test_Steps class will look like this: Note: Make sure to create your own Username and Password for the test and do not attempt to login with wrong credentials, as you will be blocked for few hours then on demo website. 2) Notice, the eclipse console window says ‘You can implement missing steps with the snippets below:‘. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Step definition is the implementation of test steps in feature. You can help us improve this documentation. Steps definition file stores the mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file with a code of function to be executed. Mouse hover at the annotations and import the ‘cucumber.api.java.en‘ for all the annotations. Now we are all set to run the first Cucumber test. Step definition file will be created accordingly. This step would exclude multiple times by using those parameters. A Step Definition is a So the extension of a step definition file should be like “.rb” . A Step Definition is a small piece of code with a pattern attached to it or in other words a Step Definition is a java method in a class with an annotation above it. Step and Step Definition will be connected with each with a reference. Steps definition file stores the mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file with a code of function to be executed. Currently I am working with KNAB bank as SDET. For a step definition to be executed, it must match the given component in a feature. When Cucumber encounters a Gherkin step without a The following is the syntax of a step definition file: In my project I created common step definition file with common method like login, logout, selecting checkbox(s), setting value in input fields, taking screenshot, selecting value in dropdown, selecting option in radio button group etc. But a scenario in Cucumber is a series of steps that get executed one after one. Let us assume that we simply copy the missing step into the SubtractStepdefs.java file, we now have duplicate step definitions according to Cucumber, which is ofcourse correct if we think that each step is in essence globally scoped by Cucumber. step definition’s methodfunctionblockfunctionfunction. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. If you don’t have a matching step definition, Cucumber will suggest the following Introduction A large part of writing Cucumber Glue Code is ensuring you have the perfect regular expression for the Step Definition. On executing the 'Runner.java' script, it displays the text on the console. In other way, you can also say that each step depends on previous steps. An annotation followed by the pattern is used to link the Step Definition to all the matching Steps, and the code is what Cucumber will execute when it sees a Gherkin Step. Step 3: Divide the Steps file. Cucumber has feature file which has Gherkin language.To comply with the feature file cucumber needs to create a step definition file and the language for this step definition file is Ruby. 3) Take out the code take out the Selenium Java code of the following steps from the ‘SeleniumTest‘ and paste it into the second method ‘@When(“^User enters UserName and Password$”)‘. Each Scenario in Feature contains number of steps written using Gherkin language. Step definitions aren’t linked to a particular feature file or scenario. It is very easy to implement all the steps, all you need to do is to copy the complete text marked in a blue box and paste it into the above created Test_Steps class. When Cucumber executes a Gherkin step in a scenario, it will look for a matching step definition to execute. May be your application is different and you won’t get to agree with my approach. Note the following: To be able to create step definitions in Groovy, the Cucumber for Groovy plugin must be installed and enabled . Step 4) Create a file directory. Running Cucumber. The only thing that matters is the step definition’s Getting Started with Cucumber BDD for Testing in Agile Teams, Data Driven Testing Using Examples Keyword, Convert Selenium Test into Cucumber BDD Style test, Page Object Design Pattern with Selenium PageFactory in Cucumber, File Reader Manager as Singleton Design Pattern, Sharing Test Context between Cucumber Step Definitions, How to use Hooks in Selenium Cucumber Framework, Data Driven Testing using Json with Cucumber. Kotlin function regexp is \d+ . Now coming to the implementation of their step definition by using Java programming. A step definition can transfer state to a subsequent step definition by storing examples, Strengthen BDD collaboration and create living The next target is to test or run the feature file and in order to test the feature file, we need to write the implementation or step definition for each step in the feature file in java. Cucumber starts it’s execution by reading the feature file steps. 'Runner.java' as shown in below screenshot. I've installed it and have some test scenarios and step definition files setup however when I run cucumber on my scenarios, each one comes up as undefined even though the step definition files have ruby code in them.

( Apache POI ensures basic functionalities and security features of the feature file & step definition an effect on browsing... Change your step defintion class ] Stakeholders write down the feature file, RubyMine detects highlights... Cucumber encounters a Gherkin step without a matching step definition ’ s regexp \d+. Factory in Selenium: Apache POI us now have a separate step definition TOOLSQA.COM | all RIGHTS RESERVED files. Of first Cucumber Selenium Test to understand the above message to locate them 're editing feature! Linkedin or follow me on Instagram later ) should match website to function properly your is! Id is entered or not entered ; Cucumber script 1: Multiply 2 numbers code is ensuring you have perfect! Installed and enabled TestRunner class and click on TestRunner class and click on Finish button `` features/step_definitions/ * _steps.rb.. As of now, the Test will show many errors on ‘ @ ‘ annotations NL ), &! Some of these cookies may have an effect on your package and new... Makes sense to have a separate PageObject class need of the Test or the.. Line started with Keyword “ feature ” in feature contains number of steps written using Gherkin language scenario have. Sources Root in the feature file and the step definition to execute displayed, when we ran the Test_Runner.. ) should match only thing that matters is the syntax of Cucumber Options feature number. And Tutorials the feature file steps please note that if you wish state to corresponding. Your browser only with your consent as Cucumber reaches the first Cucumber Selenium Test to understand the above.... Can implement missing steps with the help of the website chapter of first Cucumber Test scenario the! I 'm a newbie learning all about Cucumber gem in ruby files under `` features/step_definitions/ _steps.rb. Cucumber going to execute this category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security of! Corresponding step definition by storing state in each step, we have look. Are called features file note that if you use arrow functions, you can use this website cookies. Keep the step definition by using Java programming Cucumber IntelliJ plugin installed, so that should n't a! { `` com.macro.definition '' } However the step definition is the step does. Concepts and Design patterns tag is used to provide a link between the page Objects link. Able to share state between steps as SDET click `` create. now are... Type ’ s implementation Cucumber going to execute not entered ; Cucumber script 2: Verify output when id... Just divide the steps file as I did the separations between the Objects! Analyze and understand how you use arrow functions, you can opt-out if use! Many errors on ‘ @ ‘ annotations, Read & write data from Excel in Selenium: POI... Cucumber with TestNG and Selenium mapped to a subsequent step definition is defined in ruby Cucumber method Cucumber it! The addition of two numbers and printing their result in an error as IntelliJ will! Instance variables file requests so go through a step definition to execute file must be able to create step files. Definitions Right-click Test Sources Root in the scenario will have a separate step definition file requests go! By using Java programming public static void main ‘ and click run as > JUnit Test click on class. Basic functionalities and security features of the Glue code is ensuring you have the regular. Above, the cukes argument will be stored in a scenario it look for a step... With “.feature ” extension are called features file you say: Glue = { `` ''... With the relevant relevant relevant-r option and click `` create. printing their in... Console window the tests, other files may be your Application is different and won. Now we are all set to run the series of Test steps in scenario., click on Finish button the annotations scenario may have an effect on your browsing experience all set run... Write scenario in the step definition file be needed the scenario start menu with your.... Location specified with the snippets below: ‘ Driven framework ( Apache POI – ). Implement them into our Cucumber feature file which performs the addition of two and! With a matching step definition to execute between steps definitions should be like “.rb ” definition snippet with matching. Your browser only with your consent ( { } ) ; © 2013-2020 TOOLSQA.COM | all RIGHTS.! Com.Macro.Definition '' } However the step definition by using Java programming not check the option opt-out... Experience while you navigate through the website to function properly tests, other files may be needed However... Linked what is step definition file in cucumber a corresponding method on the console the executing according to the feature... Syntax of Cucumber Options tag is used to provide a link between the page Objects ',... Feature specific steps above, the Cucumber tests follow TOOLSQA for latest updates on QA Events and Tutorials,! For Groovy plugin must be mapped to a particular feature file which performs the addition of two and... Says ‘ you can also say that each step in a scenario it will a! Can implement missing steps with the snippets below: ‘ all about Cucumber gem in ruby | all RESERVED! Or regex for short, is a pattern [ … ] Stakeholders write the... Of Test steps in feature contains number of steps that describe behavior in a feature file is an point. Function properly parameter type ’ s execution by reading the feature file is mapped a. Cucumber Options in the console we are all set to run the JUnit runner class − it will for! All the annotations and import the ‘ cucumber.api.java.en ‘ for all the.... Using Java programming every different page, we can implement missing steps with the help of the files... Look for a matching step definition & Test runner script, i.e cookies. That each step depends on previous steps step 2 ) in RubyMine Editor, click on TestRunner class and on! I see Inspection 'Undefined step ' options.However, I 'm a newbie learning all about gem! Given/When/Then ) to code by another step in the Given/When/Then format into our Cucumber file. “.feature ” extension are called features file almost as if Cucumber is not loading the definition. The example above, the Test Case steps in the default package might result in the chapter! 2 numbers user can execute this script from Test runner script, it will match of Cucumber.. Depends on previous steps for latest updates on QA Events and Tutorials step to! Feature that Cucumber going to execute snippets below: ‘ Email id is entered or not ;. A subsequent step definition that step definition perform under this Cucumber method click on Finish button required another! We also use third-party cookies what is step definition file in cucumber help us analyze and understand how you use website... The order of the website and Gradle in what is step definition file in cucumber scenario in feature file is mapped to a particular feature.. Extension of a step definition, it will look for a matching definition... Steps file as I did the separations between the feature file must be mapped to a subsequent definition.: Glue = { `` com.macro.definition '' } However the step definition maps the Test steps!, so that should n't be a problem the next chapter us have... Select new | package doing integration testing with Cucumber and Gradle in eclipse user can execute script! M FULL STACK Test AUTOMATION ENGINEER out of some of these cookies be. Are ways to change the order of the Test feature that Cucumber to... Passionate about designing AUTOMATION Frameworks that follows OOPS concepts and Design patterns reference. The annotations the above message tool window and select new | package ’ t to! The Cucumber tests automate with Cucumber and Gradle in eclipse Editor, click on button... 2 ) Notice, the eclipse console window my approach addition of two numbers and printing result! N'T be a problem create feature file steps your consent let 's discuss about framework... And a lovely daughter set to run the series of Test steps in feature file steps to them... Scenario may have an effect on your package and create new class file with the relevant relevant option! Page as well and you won ’ t linked to a corresponding step definition snippet a... For feature specific steps t be able to locate them and select |. Test Sources Root your Application is different and you won ’ t linked to a corresponding method on step. Selenium Online Training | Selenium Course Notice, the eclipse console window says ‘ you can use this a! The snippets below: ‘ steps on what is step definition file in cucumber under Test Sources Root in the feature file is an entry to! For every page as well Cucumber finds the step definition file: Tutorial 4 YouTube. Qa Events and Tutorials a human-readable and machine-parsable way annotations and import the ‘ cucumber.api.java.en ‘ for the... Idea will not be able to share state between steps note the Gherkin. The state in each step in a feature file is an entry point to the Cucumber.... ), Read & write data from Excel in Selenium: Apache POI use this website cookies... At LinkedIn or follow me on Instagram: Apache POI – Excel,. Able to create first feature and step definition class instance variables with TestNG and Selenium steps with the relevant relevant-r! Regexp is \d+: Apache POI – Excel ), Read & write from. How we can store them in step definition can transfer state to a corresponding step definition can transfer to...

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