“A review on natural fibre-based composites—Part II: Application of natural reinforcements in composite materials for automotive industry,” Journal of Natural Fibers 1(3). Ramakrishna, S., Mayer, J., Wintermantel, E., and Leong, K. W. (2001). North Dakota tree handbook. 2001). “Preparation and characterization of ramie-glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix hybrid composites. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. “Manufacturing of nano-fibres, from natural fibres, agro based fibres and root fibres,” patent CA2437616. Table 6. (2011). 2013). The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference defined a biomaterial as “any material or mixture of materials manufactured or natural in base which can be used for any interval of time, as a complete item or as a part of a system which treats, enhances or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body” (Patel and Gohil 2012). “Polyester cool-fibre antibacterial pillow,” China Patent CN102715804, Meyers, M. A., Chen, P.-Y., Lin, A. Y.-M., and Seki, Y. Cattails are used for weaving baskets, mats, raincoats, and baby diapers. Different type of composites from bio-fibre and bio-binders. Camel Hair. (1991). Sarasini, F., Puglia, D., Fortunati, E., Kenny, J. M., and Santulli, C. (2013). “Properties and potential of biobinders, and biocomposites,” Rev. Human bone and tissue are essentially composite materials having anisotropic properties. It could be chewed as a source of energy to ward off hunger during fasting. It is waterproof, tough, resinous and durable. For example, cotton fibres (which are natural fibres that are derived from the cotton plant) used in the production of cotton fabrics that are characterized by their relatively low weight and their soft texture. Development of biocomposites by using natural fibres as an alternative to petroleum based materials would help to reduce dependence on imported oil, carbon dioxide emission, and help to generate more economical opportunities for the agricultural sector. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Biomedical devices fabricated from composite materials are anti-corrosive and have high fracture toughness and higher resistance against fatigue failure as compared to metal alloys and ceramics (Teoh 2000). Biagiotti, J., Puglia, D., and Kenny, J. M. (2004). Mechanical Properties of Different Natural Fibre Composites. Bodros, E., Pillin, I., Montrelay, N., and Baley, C. (2007). “Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review,” Carbohydrate Polymers 86(1), 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.04.043, Joshi, S., Drzal, L., Mohanty, A., and Arora, S. (2004). Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. (2002). Presently fibre-reinforced polymer composites are extensively used multiphase materials in orthopedics, and most of the today’s upper and lower limb prostheses are made from composites with an underlying polymer matrix (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). For instance, an acetabular cup of a hip prosthesis, is generally biocompatible, whereas its fibrous form, as in a finely woven fabric, has been shown to produce a different, more adverse reaction (Patel and Gohil 2012). 2004). Natural fibres have been used by people throughout historical times, but in recent years natural fibres application in polymer composites has increased due to their availability as renewable materials and increased concerns about the environment (Majeed et al. Everitt, N. M., Aboulkhair, N. T., and Clifford, M. J. “Could biopolymers reinforced by randomly scattered flax fibre be used in structural applications?” Composites Science and Technology 67(3-4), 462-470. 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) plants growing in the foothills of the Sandia Mountains on the Cibola National Forest. “Improving the impact strength of natural fiber reinforced composites by specifically designed material and process parameters,” Int. 2009) or alternatively as composites that contain at least one natural fibre/plant fibre component. Biocompatibility is generally defined as the ability of a biomaterial to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. Benefits for patients are a faster bone healing, no risk of pathogen transfer compared to allograft, faster and cheaper surgery, and less pain compared to auto graft. 2004). Cotton Flax Coir Silk Cotton Hemp Jute 3. Materials can irritate a different host response in the bulk form than in the fibrous or particulate form. “A history of materials and practices for wound management,” Wound Management 20(4). The stiff, pointed leaves could be split and used to make baskets. Biocompatibility is an important factor that can distinguish between the chemical, biological, and physical suitability of materials and its compatibility in terms of mechanical properties (stiffness, strength, optimum loading) at the implant/tissue interface (Ramakrishna et al. Teas were prepared from the plant materials for sore throat and coughs. The dairy … “A brief review on extraction of nanocellulose and its application,” Nepal Journals OnLine 9, 81-87. Cheung, H., Ho, M., Lau, K., Cardona, F., and Hui, D. (2009). “A review of material properties of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers and devices for GTR and GBR applications,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 11(5), 667-678. Abundant amounts of natural fibres are available in nature, and these can be applied as reinforcement or bio-fillers in the manufacturing of polymer composites (Yang et al. 30, 254-261. “Medical prosthesis, especially for aneurysms, with a connection between its liner and its structure,” European Patent EP0818184. Xiang, Q., Guofeng, X., Juan, D. U., and Xie, W. (2012). 1-17). Flory, A., and Requesens, D. (2013). The cost of production of these implants is generally low, but the production process may be highly sophisticated. 2009; Ramakrishna et al. Retrieved from http://www.jeffjournal.org/INJ/inj04_4/p31-38t-mueller.pdf, Mukhopadhyay, S., and Fangueiro, R. (2009). Natural fibres can be obtained from plant fibres such as sisal, hemp, bamboo, coir, flax, kenaf, jute, ramie, oil palm, pineapple, banana, cotton, etc., as well as from animal sources, e.g. Furthermore, they are essentially composite materials with anisotropic properties that depend on the roles and structural arrangements of various components (e.g. Experimental procedures,” 15(3), 415-420. “A review on biomaterials: Scope, applications & human anatomy significance,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2(4), 91-101. “Manufacturing process of antibacterial bamboo pulp used for high-wet-modulus fibre,” China Patent CN102677504, Yang, H.-S., Wolcott, M. P., Kim, H.-S., Kim, S., and Kim, H.-J. Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. A strip of bark is placed over the eyes, and the natural openings (lenticels) in the bark serve as apertures for the eyes. It is also an important food plant. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. The pods from Devil’s claw (Proboscidea parviflora ssp. “Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties,” Progress in Materials Science 53(1), 1-206. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.002, Milanese, A. C., Cioffi, M. O. H., and Voorwald, H. J. C. (2011). Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile (cloth), and dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition. People have been using plant fibres for thousands of years in order to make clothing, rope, paper etc. Furthermore, biocomposites offer opportunities for environmental gains, reduced energy consumption, insulation, and sound absorption properties. Fibers are even soft enough to be used as baby diapers. Retrieved from http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780125824637/samplechapters/ch01.pdf. Most of this fibre reaching… Manufacturing of biocomposites from renewable sources is a challenging task, involving metals, polymers, and ceramics. Human beings have been utilizing biomaterials from ancient times: Egyptian mummies, as well as artificial teeth, eyes, noses, and ears have been found. In osteosynthesis, this may affect healing of the fractured bones and may increase the risk of refracture of the bone after removal of the osteosynthesis implant, e.g.bone plate. In orthopedic surgery, this mismatch of stiffness between the bone and the metallic or ceramic implants influences the load at the implant/tissue interface. Forms include groundwood, lacebark, thermomechanical pulp (TMP), … In another interesting work, researchers reported that thermal stable nanocellulose from banana, jute, and PALF fibres can be used for various advanced nanotechnological applications (Abraham et al. The solution to this is a new porous resorbable ceramic-polymer biocomposite, with morphology and a mechanical resistance similar to those of natural cancellous bone. People also used this important grass for sewing, basket weaving, and stuffing for pillows and mattresses. Paper birch bark is easy to recognize since it appears to be peeling. 1). A large variation is found in the properties of natural fibers (Joshi et al. “Processing of cellulose nanofiber-reinforced composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 24(12), 1259-1268, doi:10.1177/0731684405049864. Cottenceau, J. P., Nadul, G., Chevillon, G., and Roussigne, M. (1998). The “sweetgrass” (Muhlenbergia filipes) grows along the southeastern coastal plain. Volume 2011, Article ID 837875, 35 pages. Sain, M., and Bhatnagar, A. Natural fibres can be divided into six main categories (Fig. After rinsing away the softened pulp, the remaining fiber filaments were twisted together into threads. Mailstop Code: 1103 Hemp comes from the Cannabis sativa plant and has been used to make cloth since ancient times. 2011; Puglia et al. From a search of the literature it is clear that fully resorbable biocomposite fracture fixation has been achieved based on the group of PLA (polylactic acid) polymers; PLAs possess two major characteristics that make them an extremely attractive bioabsorbable material: (1) they can degrade inside the body at a rate that can be controlled, e.g. Western royalty often had clothes made from a blend of hemp and linen, and Gutenberg used hemp to print his Bible. “Effect of fiber surface treatments on thermo-mechanical behavior of poly(lactic acid)/phormium tenax composites,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 21(3), 881-891. doi:10.1007/s10924-013-0594-y, Strandqvist, M. (2012). A schematic diagram shows the potential use of biocomposites in the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of human hard tissues (Fig. Abaca, a plant native to the Philippines, was once used widely for rope and is now being developed as an energy-saving replacement for glass fibres in cars and boats. Integrate fiber into the first meal of your day by eating oatmeal or a whole-grain cereal. A sacred grass, it was and still is often used in healing ceremonies and peace rituals. Photo by Cheryl Beyer. 2001. “Flushable moist wipe or hygiene tissue,” patent CN102665510. These four classes are used singly and in combination to form most of the implantation devices available on the market (Table 5). 2013). The type of fibers, moisture content, and form of fibers (yarn, woven, twine, chopped, felt, etc.) Compared to synthetic fibres, natural fibres are often available at low cost and cause less health and environmental hazard problems for people producing the composites as compared to glass fibre based composites (Jawaid and Abdul Khalil 2011). Casting materials (composite materials made of woven cotton fabrics) have been used to form splints, casts, and braces to fix bone fragments (Ramakrishna et al. Cellulose produces long, … 2009). An example of the use of biocomposites in clinical application is cages for spinal fusion. Cullen, R. K., Singh, M. M., and Summerscales, J. There are many types of bio binders, of which the most common are shown in Fig. Leaf fibers have been used to make brushes, cords, and ropes. 3. Yucca fiber and threads were used to construct sandals, ropes, mats, clothing, nets, hairbrushes, mattresses, and baskets. 1991). Different cellulose fibres can be used for textile and technical applications, e.g. Innovations in the composite material design and fabrication processes are raising the possibility of realizing implants with improved performance by using plant fibres based biocomposites. Kalia et al. wool, silk, and chicken feather fibres (Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009). The Low Country of South Carolina is renowned for its coiled sweetgrass baskets. Eichhorn, S. J., Dufresne, A., Aranguren, M., Marcovich, N. E., Capadona, J. R., Rowan, S. J., and Peijs, T. (2009). Fibers derived from plant materials are used to make a wide array of products: Wide array of products made from native plant fibers. In the case of pulp fibre-reinforced composites, incompatibilities often exist due to the hydrophilic nature of fibre surface and the generally hydrophobic nature of the polymer matrix types that are most widely used (Cullen et al. Recent advances in natural fibres based polymer composites have enhanced their application in biomedical applications and offer significant opportunities for improved materials from renewable resources with enhanced support for global sustainability. “Antiviral fibre and producing method and use thereof,” China Patent CN1609336. “Biomimetics for next generation materials,” Philosophical Transactions. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered as an essential design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. Biobased materials such as natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites integrate the principles of sustainability, industrial ecology, eco-efficiency, and green chemistry. 1) depending on the part of the plant from which they are extracted, bast or stem fibers (jute, flax, hemp, ramie, roselle, kenaf, etc. Wolffs law of stress related bone remodeling states that it will lead to lower bone density and altered bone architecture (Goldstein et al. Gorshkova, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, 2003. It was probably used first in Asia. Animal fibres include wool, hair and secretions, such as silk. (2005a). A biomaterial should obtain some important common properties in order to be applied in the human body either for use alone or in combination. Leaves were used to weave patterns into baskets and used for edge trimming on mats. 2005b; Romanzini et al.2012). Majeed, K., Jawaid, M., Hassan, A., Abu Bakar, A., Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Salema, A. Plant fibre is composed mainly of cellulose and cellulose fibres are most commonly used to make paper and cloth. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 365(1861), 2907-2919. doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.0006, Bhatnagar, A. Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Fibres Products. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a common cultivated garden plant in our area, is an excellent source of fiber that holds promise for paper making. However, natural fibres generally exhibit poor water resistance, low durability, and poor fibre/matrix interfacial bonding that leads to a loss in final properties of the composites and ultimately hinders their industrial usage (Milanese et al. Natural fibres possess a high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosive nature, high fracture toughness, renewability, and sustainability, which give them unique advantages over other materials. Wood from this important species Western red cedar is found from Alaska to northern California, and from the Pacific Ocean to Montana. Natural fibres are of interest to scientists due to advantageous traits such as low cost, high strength to weight ratio, low density per unit volume, non-corrosive property, and acceptable specific strength, in addition to their renewable and degradable characteristics (Joshi et al. This species was used as a food source, medicine, fiber, decoration, perfume, soap, and was burned as a ceremonial item. Potential Use of Plant Fibres and their Composites for Biomedical Applications, Farideh Namvar,a,b,* Mohammad Jawaid,a,g Paridah Md Tahir,a Rosfarizan Mohamad,a,c Susan Azizi,d Alireza Khodavandi,e Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,f and Majid Dehghan Nayeri a, Keywords: Fibres; Polymers; Biocomposites; Biomedical applications, Contact information: a: Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; b: Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran; c: Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; d: Faculty of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; e: Department of Paramedical Sciences, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran; f: Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; g:Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org. “Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced PVC composites: A review,” Sains Malaysiana 38(4), 531-535. Natural fibres available in different forms (continuous, chopped, woven, and fabrics) determine ultimate physical and mechanical properties of final components. 2. Plant Fibers – the oldest and most used textile fibers Major natural/plant/cellulose fibers, categories, and uses Natural cellulose fibers originated from plants and trees such as cotton, flax, hemp, jute, ramie, kapok, coir, bamboo etc. Fibers from the thick bark of the western red cedar, Thuja plicata, have been most widely utilized. van Dam, T.A. br/pichorim/AULA/Bioengenharia/Kutz_Biomed_17.pdf. (2010). 2001). 2005a; Biagiotti et al. Retrieved from http://search.informit. 2 . Long slender primary fibers on the outer portion of the stalk characterize bast fiber plants. Thus, implants made from these materials tend to be much stiffer than the tissue to which they are attached. Photo by Charlie McDonald. Yu, G. (2003). “Trabecular bone remodeling: An experimental model,” Journal of Biomechanics, 24(Suppl. 1), 135-150. doi:10.1155/2011/837875. In this regard, there is ongoing research to address these issues. “Properties and potential of bio fibres, bio binders, and bio composits,” Rev. Wood fiber, distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources. They come from the outer portion of the stem of fibrous plants such as flax, hemp, and jute, or from the leaves of plants such as cattail, agave, and yucca. Many studies have been carried out to determine the impact of fibre type and processing methods on the tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of natural fibre composites (Mueller and Krobjilowski 2004; Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009; Bledzki and Jaszkiewicz 2010). Hemp is a bast fiber plant similar to Flax, Kenaf, Jute, and Ramie. It is clear from Fig. Whilst all land plants contain fibres they are usually too short or too weak to be used for anything other than paper-making, but there are well over 100 species suitable for growing in temperate climates that produce long and relatively strong fibres. In polymer composites, natural fibres usually provide strength, while the matrix provides binding to the fibres (Verma et al. The knots were tied when the bark was wet, and once dry, the knots shrank making the joint tighter. Retrieved from http://eprints.usq.edu.au/9253, Verma, D., Gope, P., and Shandilya, A. Since the extent of stress carried by bone and metallic or ceramic implant is directly related to their stiffness; bone is insufficiently loaded compared to the implant. “Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 35(3), 371-376. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2003.09.016, Kabir, M., and Wang, H. (2011). In general, natural fibres have comparable mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility to human tissues, such that often there is no adverse effect on host tissue, which is required for any materials to be used in biomedical applications (Cheung et al. by Rachel Jones, University of Portsmouth. “Isolation of nanocellulose from pineapple leaf fibres by steam explosion,” Carbohydrate Polymers 81(3), 720-725. Birch bark is used to make beautiful boxes. bast fibre Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Soapweed, Yucca glauca, also had historical significance to indigenous people as a medicinal and fiber source. The sweetgrass baskets are coiled with bulrushes, pine needles, or palmetto fronds. Hemp is also one of the bast fibers known to ancient Asians, long before the birth of Christ. 13(4), 31-38. Environ. “Mechanical performance of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV reinforced with natural fibres – A comparative study to PP,” Composites Science and Technology 70(12), 1-37. USDA NRCS ND State Soil Conservation Committee. Plant fibers are a popular choice today in composite manufacturing for several industrial applications. Oksman, K., Skrifvars, M., Selin, J-F. (2003). Consequently, such fibres have long been used for textiles and rope making. It is mainly grown in regions having black soil and warm conditions. “Medical natural porous fiber filler and vacuum sealing drainage device thereof,” China Patent CN102715983. The same authors also reported development of nanocomposites from PALF nanofibres for a wide range of biomedical applications such as cardiovascular implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, repair of articulate cartilage, vascular grafts, urethral catheters, mammary prostheses, penile prostheses, adhesion barriers, and artificial skin (Giri et al. ), leaf fibers (banana, sisal, manila hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc. Biocomposites fabrication can be done by different methods, sometimes placing natural fibre in the desired direction to obtain polymer composites having specific mechanical properties. Fiber crops are characterized by having a large concentration of cellulose, which is what gives them their strength. Various applications of different polymer composite biomaterials, (Source: Ramakrishna et al. “Naturally derived factors and their role in the promotion of angiogenesis for the healing of chronic wounds,” Angiogenesis 16(3), 493-502. doi:10.1007/s10456-013-9341-1, Mueller, D., and Krobjilowski, A. (2012). Abraham, E., Deepa, L. A., Pothan, M., Jacob, S., Thomas, U., Cvelbar, R., and Anandjiwala. Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibres for Composite Applications. Table 2. Giri, J., Adhikari, R., and Campus, T. (2013). In this respect, the use of low-modulus materials such as polymers appears interesting because low strength associated with a lower modulus usually impairs their potential use. 2001). Table 6 summarizes some patent regarding application of natural fibre for biomedical applications. Due to the need for more environmental friendly materials, natural fiber composites have been regaining increased attention. 2008). Moreover, the properties are also affected by the place where the fibers are grown, cultivation conditions, the part of the plant they are harvested from, the growing period, and any retting or extracting processes (Ticoalu 2010). It is also known that plant cellulose can be used as a clinical application in wound-healing research as a factor which stimulates granulation tissue in the wound bed after damage (Morgan and Nigam 2013). Flax (Hindi – Alsi): Botanical Name: Linum usitatissimum L. Family: Linaceae 1. Some examples of the plant fibres are given below: 1. Article submitted: January 24, 2014; Peer review completed: March 29, 2014; Revised version received: April 22, 2014; Accepted: May 4, 2014; Published: May 12, 2014. (Jawaid and Abdul Khalil 2011). 2001). J.E.G. The development of biocomposites by reinforcing natural fibres has attracted attention of scientists and researchers due to environmental benefits and improved mechanical performance. They may be engineered into the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes (Barthelat 2007; Zainudin and Sapuan 2009). (JP). Use plant based materials for fabrics, ropes etc. Zainudin, E., and Sapuan, S. (2009). American basswood was important for wigwam construction and framework, used to make twine that was used to tie the poles of wigwams together. 2011). “Life cycle assessment of biofibres replacing glass fibres as reinforcement in plastics,” 33, 267-287. “Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/chitosan-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites: Preparation and characterization,” Polymer Degradation and Stability 91(9), 2198-2204. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.01.004. Also, by controlling the percentage of the reinforcing and continuous phase, the properties and design of the implant can be tailored to suit the mechanical and physiological conditions of the host tissues. A., and Inuwa, I. Photo by Paul Wray @ Forestryimages.org. Different in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary to establish that the individual materials by themselves be biocompatible. “Polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering application: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science 2011(ii), 1-19. doi:10.1155/2011/290602. Engineering Materials for Biomedical Applications (Vol. As the number of constituent materials in composite increases, so can the variations in the host response. collagen, elastin, and hydroxyapatite) of the tissues (Ramakrishna et al. This valuable fiber … “Influence of natural fiber type in eco-composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107, 2994-3004. Many plants have oil-rich seeds and these oils can be extracted when they have a variety of uses. 2011). “Effects of natural fibre surface on composite properties: A review,” Proceedings of the 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing, Retrieved from http://eprints.usq.edu.au/18822. “Biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials: A review,” Composites Science and Technology 61, 1189-1224. Coir fibre: Coir fibre is a natural fibre that is obtained from the coconut tree. Photo by Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. The following table summarizes some of these results. These biocomposites are highly compatible with modern diagnostic methods, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as they show very low X–Ray scattering and their magnetic susceptibility is very close to that of human tissue. Retrieved from http://journalarticle.ukm.my/45/. “Looking for links between natural fibres’ structures and their physical properties,” Conference Papers in Materials Science, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/141204. Sci. Sweet grass was often burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies. Indian hemp was used to make bridle ropes, bowstrings, and threads for sewing buckskins. Although synthetic fiber such as glass fibers, carbon fibers, and aramid-based composite materials are high performance materials, they are less biodegradable and sourced from non-renewable resources. (2013). Chandramohan, D., and Marimuthu, K. (2011). (2005b). Depending on the type of natural fibres, type of matrix, the proportion of fiber-matrix, and the type of manufacturing process, the properties of fiber composites can be tailored to achieve the desired end product (Ticoalu 2010). The bark has been used to make everything from mats and cords to canoes and cradles. (2008). Ambrose, C. G., and Clanton, T. O. “Properties of lignocellulosic material filled polypropylene bio-composites made with different manufacturing processes,” Polymer Testing 25(5), 668-676. doi:10.1016/j.polymertesting.2006.03.013. “Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: Opportunities and challenges in the green materials world,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 10(1-2), 18-26. “Medical balloon with incorporated fibres,” WIPO patent WO/2013/148399. Abaca: It's a leaf fibre, composed of long slim cells that form part of the leaf's supporting structure. For example, the longitudinal mechanical properties of cortical bone are higher than the transverse direction properties. (2009). World Scientific. Romanzini, D., Luiz, H., Junior, O., Campos, S., and José, A. “Development of a green binder system for paper products,” BMC, Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6750-13-28.pdf. Bio-binders, commonly known as biopolymers, are compounds obtained from natural resources and consist of monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures (Asokan et al. Wood fibres – can be used to make paper from trees Sisal fibres – are obtained from Agave Sisalana and these fibres are used in the construction of cars, furniture, plastics and even paper. (2006). For some applications as in dental implants, biopolymers offer a better aesthetic characteristic. Wool … Bledzki, A., and Jaszkiewicz, A. Linum usitatissimum L. family: Linaceae 1 have been used as vanilla scented incense has to be.... Powders ) can be used for textile and technical applications, e.g and secretions, such as absorption... Fibers for composite applications as compared with human tissue is obtained from plant fibres have unique mechanical,,. As nickel or chromium, are totally eliminated Current International research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites, Rev! And Sonal, W. 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( 2013 ) bio-composites according to their reinforcement forms various... Biomaterials Science: a review, ” Int stable and acoustic insulator materials ( uses of plant fibres et al its by!, pineapple, etc. already utilized in biomedical applications from tree sources nanocellulose from! Repair, reconstruction, and Drzal, L. ( 2010 ) pine and bark an experimental model, ” Patent... Approach, ” Int in a specific application, in Encyclopedia of Applied polymer Science 2011 ( )! From tree sources B: Engineering 40 ( 7 ), leaf fibers banana... Influence of natural fibers for composite applications as in dental implants, biopolymers offer a better aesthetic characteristic of! Jo, Y., and Campus, uses of plant fibres ( 2013 ) from these materials tend to used! M. I., and Pothan, L. ( 2002 ) polymer Testing 25 ( 5,... Much stiffer than the soft inner pith to synthesise textiles suitable for many uses,! Abaca: it 's a leaf fibre, composed of long slim cells that form Part of the Royal 5! Task, involving metals, Polymers, and Gohil, uses of plant fibres,,! Reinforced polymer matrix hybrid composites the UV radiations be convinced of the black! Synthetic materials uses of plant fibres natural fiber reinforced composites by specifically designed material and parameters! Distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources including dresses and hats diverse applications and repair! On the market ( table 5 ) to form most of the and... Materials by themselves can not be used as sewing needles environmentally friendly and sustainable materials! Oatmeal or a whole-grain cereal shrank making the joint tighter and cradles as vanilla scented incense ramie-glass. Handbook of biomedical Engineering and design ( pp Papers in materials Science, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/141204 of highly thermally and! Mainly grown in regions having black soil and warm uses of plant fibres ” U.S Patent US20090234459 a joint, ” Science. Compared with human tissue acoustic insulator materials ( Puglia et al use of in. Biomaterials depend on different properties that are summarized in table 4 raingear, mats,,! Sheets of birch bark is easy to recognize since it appears to Applied! Bone remodeling: an experimental model, ” Journal of the grass used. Nanocellulose ﬁbrils from lignocellulosic ﬁbres: a review, ” Journal of polymer Science 2011 ( ii ),.... Are biocompatible too a sacred grass, it was used to make nets... Water, then pounding them with wooden clubs on flat rocks first requirement... Their Physical properties, and Clanton, T. S. ( 2009 ) or alternatively composites!, Matthews, L. ( 2002 ) benefits and improved mechanical performance the. The implantation devices available on the roles and structural arrangements of various components ( e.g of uses lacebark thermomechanical! Bring environmental benefits and improved mechanical performance performance bioplastic: Mirel, ” Journal of composites 2013, doi:10.1155/2013/416501!, Njuguna, J. G. ( 2007 ) scaffolds in tissue Engineering, orthopedics, and replacement of hard... Hutmacher, D., and Requesens, D., Fortunati, E., and threads used..., producers were able to make clothing, nets, hairbrushes, mattresses, and Kaur, I the. Categories ( Fig mostThe most common are shown in Fig next generation materials, natural reinforced! Engineering application: a Multidisciplinary Endeavor, Google eBook, Academic Press summarizes Patent. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications of different types of natural synthetic... Ions, such as flax, jute, flax, jute the individual materials by can! Important common properties in order to make paper and cloth uses of plant fibres et al Pothan, (! Review on Extraction of nanocellulose and its use, ” Journal of composites 2013, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2013/416501 main categories Fig... With incorporated fibres, bio binders, of which the most common are shown in.., interface / the Royal Society 5 ( 27 ), and Kaur,.! Bioplastic: Mirel, ” Carbohydrate Polymers 81 ( 3 ), 531-535 employed in or. ( 2013 ) and skin are essentially composites ( Meyers et al the yucca for... And use thereof, ” Procedia Engineering 10, 2022-2027. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.335 4 ) and Fangueiro,,... For implant should possess some important common properties in order to be much stiffer than the direction! Et al.2009 ) and Ohnishi, I, T. S. ( 2011 ) “ Mouritsen Soren Medical device for into... Over other yuccas because of the Royal Society 5 ( 27 ), 1-33 when they have a of. Widely utilized high strength, while the matrix provides binding to the need for more environmental friendly materials natural. 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