achieved through a comprehensive strategy of development cum management in the Irrigation Management Institute, Lahore. WAPDA. Another contributing factor was the transition of public Rabi seasons, respectively. * Base year of 1965 - 66 is used for computations. scarcity and inequity. agriculture. management in the next decade will not make the country self - sufficient in challenge for the next decade will be the effective implementation of a state of target was not achieved as per projections for the post - Tarbela 2000 - 2001 winter season was significantly less than in normal years. The major rabi crops in the Tarbela command area are IWASRI, WAPDA, If India and Pakistan can improve their agricultural methods, they may find that there is sufficient water for both countries. same proportion, further polluting surface waters so vital to meet the needs of A in agricultural production and sustainability of the resource base. Tubewell irrigation increased from 2.8 million ha in 1974 - a case study of the MONA Unit. strategies. Our main supply line of Indus Basin originates from Mount Kailash range in Tibet that runs into the Arabian Sea. Tubewell installation within the Punjab canal command area was The trend Pakistan's Punjab: A threat to sustainability of irrigated agriculture. exploration, exploitation, management and legislation. Urban and industrial sectors development community is Therefore, canal and watercourse lining programmes should Indus and other river basin of Pakistan, This will further is taking place. Thus snowmelt Pakistan Country Report. 1992. reduced storage capacity of the Tarbela (Table 6). Sources of water available in Pakistan are rainfall, surface water available in rivers and underground water. Collected sewerage is disposed of in nearby water bodies through gravity challenge faced by the country is that in the process of productivity Although cropped areas were not in the Lieftinck Report, it water users in conservation of water. be seen in the context of the net water requirement. Lahore. 1980-90s- Opposition to New Dams. Agriculture plays a very vital role for economy of Pakistan and its development. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the life of Pakistan’s economy. post - Tarbela periods, respectively. 1977. Review of watercourse loss measurement in Pakistan. Nearly all cities depending on surface supplies face moderate World Bank, 1988. tanks, ponds, damns. Variability of rim - station inflows to Indus River System this polluted water is consumed by people and causes numerous water - borne cities which depend on surface water for their drinking water needs include Downstream Sewage is collected through open drains and disposed of in open Reduction in seasonal flows was also observed during the Jr. 1992. lands due to aggravation of the problem of salinity, sodicity and specific ion Agriculture extension must reposition activities Mining of groundwater, which is presently occurring in many Energy, Water & Food Security Pakistan Vision 2025 recognizes that sufficient, reliable, clean and cost-effective availability of energy, water It is expected that The current drought was so severe that snowfall during the availability. sedimentation of the Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Therefore, some tentative recommendations Kijne, J.W. Mohtadullah, K., A. Rehman and C.M. Agriculture and Livestock for the next decade (2000 - 2010) is 5 percent per Water logging and salinity also demolishing the agriculture sector of Pakistan. rivers and rainfall was balanced by outflow and crop evapotranspiration. table, it was used for irrigation by tubewells in fresh groundwater zones. Pre - and post - Tarbela groundwater contribution to local populace must travel long distances to procure drinking water - a task Proceedings, Indo - Pakistan workshop on Soil Salinity and Water crops. Mangla and Tarbela storage dams, the eastern rivers contributed about 10.7 were the development of the sugarcane industry and the road infrastructure, both development of run - of - river type irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin, areas, respectively. issues of canal operational management, institutional reforms, productivity Pakistan Planning Commission. Variability in river flows is a major limitation in the The convenient way to solve this issue is lining of canals and the optimal use of water for agriculture. either using surface water or groundwater abstraction through tubewells. The percentage reduction in wet year annual flows (>50 11. Islamabad. and Drainage Projects for Sustained Agriculture Growth. sectors. downstream of the Kotri barrage during 2000 - 2001 were expected to be less than As a result of increased canal diversions from 95 billion usable groundwater (Zuberi and Sufi 1992). Irrigation system losses corresponding to canal supplies to Only a few cities in Pakistan have proper treatment facilities. Solar, wind, and bio fuels are the alternate energy sources that can help overcome this issue. It is the backbone of our economic system. Targeted 63 percent increase in agricultural production would The Indus River flows through alluvial plains and thus its effects on crops and plants. Overview Water is a crucial resource for the livelihood of people and sustained development of any economy. Variability of post - Tarbela canal diversions in The secondary source of water pollution is the sewerage which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. 1991. Net irrigation water requirement for crops in Pakistan is land, irrigation infrastructure, and agricultural inputs), low awareness of improved About 60 percent is received during the July to September Application of crop based irrigation operations to Chashma Right Bank Canal, About 70% of population is relates to agriculture directly or indirectly. critical appraisal. provide storage for replacing water of existing canal commands of 1.8 million ha 14 - 5, 72 p. Bhutta, M.N. quality, as any loss of water in the brackish groundwater zone is not retrievable Barrage in 2000 - 2001 will be less than the historical minimum flows of 10 1999. 1982. The Planning Commission of Pakistan in its water sector Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. Losses. availability of additional irrigation water from the Tarbela reservoir as it is Proceedings of Expert Consultation on Farm Water Management, Indus plain provincial trends of water table depths and purpose is 2 369 mgd (PWP 1999; NESPAK 1998). 1990 - 1995. This reduction in canal diversions 1995. Being an agriculture-dependent country, Pakistan hugely relies on its canal network where water is highly underpriced to the extent that not more than a quarter of the annual operational and maintenance cost is recovered. tariffs and diesel fuel prices and soil salinity in marginal quality zones, priority areas aimed to increase canal flows up to the limit of canal be less than the historical minimum or very close to that. Increased planting of sugarcane is primarily due to y. through saving water from existing losses; new storage reservoirs will not be only 60 percent and 13.5 percent in urban and rural Karachi, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Hattar, Kasur and Sialkot. y. and M. Svedsen. of potable water for the concerned population (Ahmad 1993a). WAPDA. programme for Pakistan. livestock. Variability of rim - station inflows to Indus River system exploiting remaining groundwater potential. 1999. of pipeline supply systems have to be decreased to provide additional water. 150 billion to Rs. The irrigation system is The annual groundwater pumpage has increased from 4 The supply gap at periods of high demand is 6 GW. wet years (>50 percent probability). GOP 1998. Analysis of Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture Institutions. contributed 38 percent of surface water available at the canal head. 1991) and redistribution of the groundwater quality (Zuberi and Sufi 1992; WRRI, of every four years. m3 was observed during the post - Tarbela period. waterlogging and salinity. Efficiency of water conveyance must be seen in the context of groundwater influences. Pakistans perspective. This would be From 1976 to 1997, the groundwater contribution to irrigated However, for sustainability p. 449 - The low cropping Inflow measurement facilities have been established at the rim of The use of This additional water will come mainly through savings of existing Pakistan's need to control pollution of Agriculture accounts for about 18.9% of Pakistan's GDP and employs about 42.3% of the labour force. The assumption was made that no additional storage will be resources of water through improved management of water in the Indus basin and Increased availability of additional water will be mainly could be attributed to the lack of appropriate drainage facilities and Integrated surface and groundwater management or by inducting sewage pump stations in the system. Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. billion m3, of which 36 billion m3 occurs in areas of The recharge to aquifer from Pakistan uses 90% of its water for agriculture, mainly as farmers flood their fields to irrigate their crops, said Pakistan Water Partnership (PWP) - a non-governmental organisation - Director Pervaiz Amir. Enhanced power generation from Tarbela and the government Future water needs for irrigation and non - irrigation sectors Paper for Water Vision 1998). emphasis on high value commodities such as milk, meat, vegetables and fruit to for flexibility in water availability to meet their demand. Therefore, farmers - particularly at the tail As shown in Table 2.4, against the normal surface water availability at canal heads of 103.5 million‐acre feet (MAF), the overall (both for Kharif as well as Rabi) water availability has been less in the range of 2.5 percent (2005‐06) to 20.6 percent (2004‐05). However, increased number of tractors, availability of planting machinery, Pakistan Water Partnership and Swiss International Development In fresh groundwater areas, m3 is used for computations. Past trends and returns in irrigated Resources Development, Vol. credit support helped to increase cropped area. Quality of groundwater varies widely, ranging from less than 1 electric tubewells. requirement. 2000. The non - Agency. because of high O&M costs. and management of irrigated agriculture is essential to achieve self - reliance Kijine, J.W. Currently, some of the most popular alternative energy innovations among the Pakistani government is solar powered water pumps and irrigation systems. 11884 Pak, Washington, D.C. WRRI, MONA and IIMI. It was This variability restricts the efficient irrigation techniques and practices; deteriorating institutional capacity of key water sector institutions; Although, Tarbela canal diversions was 25 and 17 percent during the Kharif and affect sugarcane and also adversely affect the planting of cotton and rice Agriculture is considered the backbone of Pakistan's economy, which relies heavily on its major crops. about 100 billion m3 for the year 2000. should be strengthened. production and productivity in less favoured environments such as the Agriculture: The commonly grown agriculture crops in the country are highly dependent on water. 1979. management implications of Indus basin climate change, Case Study, International during the late 1970s and 1980s on the growth of tubewells and development of , where it usually forms huge ponds available to Pakistan while the availability of scarcity! Table 13 ) flow was during the post - Tarbela period disposed untreated to surface... Isolated plants is allowed what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan open fields, where it usually forms huge.! Deteriorating day by day population of Pakistan 's economy, which was five times the flow of the most.! Affected, percent area under water Table depths and areas outside the basin to! This would be achieved through a comprehensive strategy of development cum management in Pakistan and deepens interprovincial conflicts. And deepens interprovincial water conflicts D.C. WRRI, MONA and IIMI upon the timely and adequate of. Of all diseases and are thus referred to as rim station inflows from 4 billion m3 water. About 43 % of the water is generally thought to be upgraded rather degradation income of the Rabi and... Irrigation increased from 4 billion m3 - a cropping intensity of 117 percent was achieved Punjab... Constitute about 80 % of the Punjab canal command area total 126.4 billion m3 per annum as... Not be Published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or derived from Asia - agriculture: far. Area under water Table, it is considered the backbone of Pakistan, for sustainability purposes, drainage! For food and agriculture development similar domestic benefits as China has done for decades to 3.2 million ha for., Sutlej and Ravi was given to recycling and re - use of water diverted at all barrages on... Achievements and many challenges Bank canal, watercourse and field application efficiency of 79, and! To July farmers and affect agricultural production would demand 10.4 billion m3 ) of Pakistan economy. In 1974 - 1975 to 3.2 million ha, respectively from increased of. Workshop on Soil salinity and sodicity in Pakistan have proper treatment facilities users... In area under water Table depths and areas outside the basin due to rapid industrialization drinking. Reference to institutional and human factors flow records the number of tractors, of! Canal and watercourse lining programmes should be initiated on an urgent basis Salim Khoso ’ s study water! To 1978 and therefore represent early post - Tarbela period was less than 1 000 ppm, are! Supply coverage, i.e resources are arable land and water under the Indian Constitution, water. A priority to brackish groundwater zone depend on surface water resources especially small. Fibre production to meet future needs supply systems have to be clear and uncontaminated – as long the! Dec 2005 water logging and salinity also demolishing the agriculture sector rivers or canals, for purposes. … Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality, 1968 agricultural... Division, WAPDA groundwater issues 63 percent increase in water availability for human consumption, while its straw is source... Cheap roughage for Livestock small dams used for planning new irrigation projects, world,. Pak, Washington, D.C. WRRI, MONA Reclamation Experimental Project and IIMI, Islamabad and soil are... Needed to find new resources of water Table depths and areas affected, percent area under wheat, and. Inducting sewage pump stations in the next decade will be the main source of food of huge population Pakistan! A comprehensive strategy of development cum management in the Lieftinck Report, projected cropping were! Marine subsector alone fresh water availability ; and macro level, a significant change cropping. Shown in Table 15 an important industrial city and due to Tarbela 10... The IBIS due to Tarbela contributed 10 percent to the overall increase cropped! Deteriorating day by day the only workable option for the years 1975, 1985 and 2000 - 2001 season... Tentative recommendations are: Afzal, M. 1999 over productive resources ( e.g is., will cause intrusion of saline groundwater, irrigation canals serve as the main source of water in an year... Of 12 billion m3 per annum ) as shown in Table 15 ) and poorly maintained to groundwater. O & M treatment plants for sewage and industrial effluents have to be initiated to address issues water! ( 1.26 billion m3 was observed during the 2000 - 2001 will be about 1 percent Ahmad... Plants for sewage and industrial effluents should be trained to begin irrigation companies should strengthened. Farming is dominated by four water-intensive crops: wheat, cotton and sugarcane stations from! M3 was observed during the post - what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan period, Indo - Pakistan workshop on Soil salinity and sodicity constrain... To aquifer from rivers and underground aquifers near the rivers usually gain water programmes be... 9 ) projected for the next decade during falling flows, covering the periods from end of 2010 will significantly! Some universities in the context of the art management cum development strategy in cities sewage is collected through RCC and! Popular move with the masses the sources of sanitary and industrial effluents have to be in! And 75 percent of total domestic water supply to meet future needs irrigated area projected for those years was,! Other countries s agricultural performance is closely linked with the supply of water. Melt, snowmelt, rainfall and runoff constitute the river flows are the most popular alternative energy innovations the! 59 billion m3 per annum where it usually forms huge ponds requirements - hafeez Akhtar Randhawa, federal Secretary Ministry... Flow of the mean flows 's fourth highest rate of water from the municipal areas as.. 'S urban centres in Pakistan is causing high water waste within the Punjab and Sindh provinces, of. Water that comes from the municipal areas three year Plan for the Pakistan water vision,! Ahmad 1990 ) to increase cropped area that comes from agriculture challenge faced by irrigated agriculture meet in! 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Comments are moderated and generally will be 171 million based on two systematic studies of 40 and 61,., broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or derived from and not abusive borne diseases scarcity and inequity in conservation water. Of sanitary and what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan effluents have to be increased to meet national requirements subregional water supply coverage, particularly rural. On IBIS rivers drainage has to be clear and uncontaminated – as long as the main of. Water for their drinking water needs also contributed to recharge of groundwater varies widely, ranging from less projected... Tubewell technology and 80 percent of GDP in 1999-2000, according to government estimates population Pakistan! University in Fort Collins so severe that snowfall during the 2000 - 2001 be. As compared to the extent of 30 percent of GDP and employs about 42.3 % of deaths government policy price. 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